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In today’s interconnected and communication-driven world, communicative competence takes center stage. It encompasses language proficiency and the ability to navigate various communicative situations effectively.
One integral component that plays a pivotal role in achieving communicative excellence is strategic competence. In this article, We will delve into its definition and explore the five distinct types of strategic competence based on Celce- Murcia et al. (2008) theory.
Read also: Development of Communicative Competence
Strategic competence is the term which is first defined by Canale and Swain (1980). Canale and Swain define strategic competence as:
“Verbal and non-verbal communication strategies that may be called into action to compensate for breakdowns in communication due to performance variables or insufficient competence”(Canale & Swain, 1980, p. 30).
It means strategic competence is used to overcome difficult situations or limited conditions in actual communication because of a lack of communicative competence. Strategic competence has a huge role in communication. Knowing strategic competence, the speakers might handle the problems they face during communication to achieve their communication goals.
Concerning teaching, Bialystok (1990) mentioned using communication strategies; learners could resolve their linguistic problems and talk more comprehensibly. Dӧrnyei and Thurrell (1991) suggest that training this type of competence, in particular, helps develop the learner’s confidence when getting into a conversation.
Celce-Murcia et al. (1995) describe five strategic competence categories in a pedagogically oriented framework: avoidance, achievement, stealing, repair, and interactional. Then, the newest classification of strategic competence was proposed by Celce-Murcia et al. in 2008, where there are five types of strategies as follows:
It consists of approximation strategy, circumlocution or paraphrase, code-switching, and non-linguistic means.
Time-gaining is also known as the stalling strategy (Dörnyei & Scott, 1997); it enables the speaker to gain time and keep the communication channel open at times of difficulty. This strategy involves fillers.
According to Bygate (1987), fillers are “expressions like well, erm, you see, used in speech to fill in pauses.”
The most typical types of pauses are:
It is concerned with language users being able to identify and self-correct mistakes. In other words, the strategy to use phrases that allow for self-repair as I mean….
These are strategies that include appeals for help/clarification, that involve meaning negotiation, or that involve comprehension and confirmation checks.
These strategies involve seeking out native speakers to practice actively looking for opportunities to use the target language.