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Let’s explore the Q&A below to find out more information about Research in ELT
According to Nunan (1992), research is a process of formulating questions, collecting data relevant to these questions, and analyzing these data.
Research different from other types of inquiry can be seen from the systematic process involved. Research is a systematic process consisting of three elements: a question, data, and analysis. While other types of inquiry maybe lack one of the elements, for example, data.
Nunan (1992) states that three major components of research are: (1) a question, (2) data, and (3) analysis and interpretation of data.
Kaplan in Runcie (1980) suggested that a good set of concepts is needed to arrive at a good theory, while a good theory is needed to arrive at a good set of concepts. Feedback systems between the method and theories of any science are essential and must never be overlooked.
Based on the explanation above, a theory has an essential effect on the result of research because a good theory is needed to get good results in research.
The general purpose of research is to further the knowledge of the subject matter claimed by the discipline (Runcie, 1980).
The purpose of research in English teaching is to develop further English education knowledge.
The characteristics of the research process, according to Tuckman (1978), are:
Secondary research consists of reviewing the literature in giving area and synthesizing the research carried out by others. At the same time, primary research is subdivided into case studies and statistical studies.
There are two kinds of pure forms of research paradigm, namely exploratory-interpretive and analytical-nomological.
Grotjahn in Nunan (1992) the distinction between qualitative and quantitative approaches to research considered to be an oversimplification because it is necessary to take into consideration the method of data collection (whether the data have been collected experimentally or non-experimentally); the type of data yielded by the investigation (quantitative or qualitative); and type of analysis conducted on the data (whether statistical or interpretive)
Quantitative approaches are obtrusive and controlled, objective, generalizable, outcome-oriented, and assume the existence of a fact which are somehow external to and independent of the observer or researcher. Qualitative approaches, on the other hand, assume all knowledge is relative, that there is a subjective element to all knowledge and research, and that holistic, ungeneralisable studies are justifiable (Nunan, 1992).
From the explanation above, it can be concluded that quantitatively assume the fact using numerical data. Meanwhile, qualitative assumes the knowledge by interpretation.
Quantitative is referred to as objective because the data is analyzed using numerical data, not from interpretation or belief.
Qualitative is referred to soft because the data is analyzed by interpretation and depth process-oriented.
The quantitative and qualitative approaches supplement each other when testing hypotheses. When we want to test the hypothesis with a quantitative method, we have derived them from a qualitative conceptual framework. Before we count, we have to decide what categories to count.
For example, I conduct research about “Using the Role Play to Improve the Students’ Speaking Skills,” I will use a quantitative approach to count the students’ speaking scores numerically after using Role Play. Then I will use a qualitative approach to know why the students’ speaking ability is improving (if it does).