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Talk about a noun, let us talk first about what a noun is. In simple words, nouns are commonly defined as words that refer to a person, place, thing, or idea. So, when we talk about someone’s name, place, or idea, we refer to a noun. In this posting, I will elaborate on seven noun categories. They are common and proper nouns, concrete and abstract nouns, singular and plural noun, count and non-count noun, animate and inanimate nouns, collective nouns, masculine and feminine nouns, and the last is nouns of address.
A common noun is a noun that identifies general people, places, or things called common nouns —they name or identify what is common among others.
A proper noun is a noun that refers to specific names of people, places, days, and months and begins with a capital letter.
The concrete noun refers to the name people, places, animals, or physically tangible things—they can be perceived by our senses. They are things that we can see, hear, smell, taste, or touch.
Example: people, child, air, water, bread
Abstract nouns, as their name implies, name intangible things, such as concepts, ideas, feelings, characteristics, attributes, etc.—can not perceive by the senses. For example, things cannot see, smell, feel, taste, or touch.
Example: love, hate, decency, excitement, lethargy
Nouns in English do not have a gender. Instead, they change form depending on whether they are singular or plural.
A singular noun talks about one person, animal, place, or thing. Use a or a before singular noun.
Example: An airplane, a letter, a bicycle, a map.
Plural noun talks about two or more people, animals, places, or things. Most nouns are made plural by adding -s at the end.
Some rules to make plural noun.
To make most nouns plural, “-s” is added to the singular noun.
For nouns ending in “-s,” “-x,” “-z,” “-ch,” and “-sh,” “-es” is added.
For nouns ending in a consonant followed by a “-y,” the “-y” is dropped, and “-ies” is added.
Nouns ending in y after a vowel add s.
If the noun ends in a vowel plus “-o,” the plural is formed by adding “-s.”
For nouns ending in “-o,” the plural is usually formed by adding “-es.”
Some other nouns have completely irregular plurals.
Some nouns do not change in the plural.
Count Noun refers to nouns that can be considered as individual, separable items, which means that we can count them with numbers—we can have one, two, five, 15, 100, and so on. We can also use them with the indefinite articles a and an (which signify a single person or thing) or in their plural forms.
Non-Count Nouns (another name for a non-count noun is a mass noun or uncountable noun), this kind of noun can be counted one by one, cannot be considered separate units, and needs to have “counters” to qualify them. In addition, uncountable nouns cannot take an indefinite article or be made plural.
Example: furniture, dust, energy
The concrete noun that is uncountable tends to be substances or collective categories of things. For instance: wood, smoke, air, water, furniture, homework, accommodation, luggage
Abstract uncountable noun; a large number of abstract nouns are uncountable. These are usually ideas or attributes.
Example: love, hate, news, access, knowledge, beauty, intelligence, arrogance, permanence
The animate noun refers to things that are alive.
The inanimate noun refers to things that are not alive.
Collective nouns refer to a collection or group of multiple people, animals, or things. However, even though collective nouns refer to multiple individuals, they still function as singular nouns in a sentence. It is because they still are technically referring to one thing: the group as a whole.
Example: audience, a gang, a band, a group, a choir, a team, a class
Masculine nouns are words for men and boys and male animals.
Feminine nouns are words for women and girls and female animals.
Nouns of address (technically called vocatives, but also known as nominatives of address or nouns of direct address) identify the person or group being directly spoken to. Like interjections, they are grammatically unrelated to the rest of the sentence—that is, they do not modify or affect any other part. Instead, they let the listener or reader know whom you are addressing or get that person’s attention.